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Sonic the Hedgehog 3/Development/Music

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Back to: Sonic the Hedgehog 3/Development.

The music of Sonic the Hedgehog 3 stands as an ongoing conundrum for Sega due to the choices made during development. It is not fully understood how much of the soundtrack is owned by the company, having outsourced its production to third-parties, some of which have chosen to distance themselves from the project in later years.

Masato Nakamura, responsible for the soundtracks to the first two Mega Drive Sonic games, was having a great deal of success with his band, Dreams Come True, leading to him upping his demands for work on a possible Sonic 3. Nakamura wanted more royalties; both for his new music, and for the reuse of his compositions in the future. Sega declined, and decided to look elsewhere for the composition power needed in Sonic the Hedgehog 3.

Soon after development on Sonic the Hedgehog 2 was complete, core staff members Yuji Naka, Hirokazu Yasuhara, and Takashi Iizuka were brought back to Japan to begin work on Sonic the Hedgehog 3.[1] Answering the call, Sega is thought to have been approached by pop sensation Michael Jackson and his team. Jackson had a history with Sega (most notably producing Michael Jackson's Moonwalker early in the Mega Drive's lifespan) and had visited Sega's offices in Japan some months prior. He liked video games, he liked Sonic the Hedgehog, and Sega accepted immediately.

And you wouldn't believe the celebrities who did cameos. Dustin Hoffman, Michael Jackson...of course they didn't use their real names, but you could tell it was them.

— Lisa Simpson, The Simpsons episode 9F03, "The Itchy & Scratchy Movie"[2]

However, Michael Jackson was not credited in Sonic the Hedgehog 3 (as well as Sonic & Knuckles - the eventual "second half" of the adventure). Instead, credited were individuals Brad Buxer, Bobby Brooks, Darryl Ross, Geoff Grace, Doug Grigsby III, and Scirocco (the Sega Sound Team and Cube were treated as secondary to the "music composers"). Jackson's omission was perhaps not surprising, particularly in the early 90s when only the core team of developers usually made it into the credits. And yet, strangely, several staff members have mentioned the star by name.

Jackson had a history of going uncredited (or using pseudonyms) in productions, often due to contractual complications. Reportedly Jackson's record label at the time, Epic Records refused permission for the star to sing for any of its potential rivals. The most famous example of this is the third season episode of the American animated sitcom The Simpsons, Stark Raving Dad (1991), where despite guest-starring as "Micheal Jackson", the credit is given to "John Jay Smith", a person that does not exist[3]. This was later referenced in a season four episode of the show.

In 1993, Michael Jackson became caught up in child sexual abuse allegations and canceled the final leg of his Dangerous World Tour due to health concerns. General Manager of the Sega Technical Institute at that time, Roger Hector, stated in a 2005 interview and in a follow-up video interview on Pop Fiction in 2013 that this scandal lead to Michael Jackson's music being removed. Brad Buxer, a member of Michael Jackson's production team, argued that the music was not removed, but that Michael Jackson was simply uncredited. Additionally, Buxer stated that the scandal was not the cause, but Michael Jackson's dissatisfaction with the sound quality of the Sega Mega Drive system.

In 2016, Todd van Luling from the Huffington Post reached out to all of the Western composers involved. In this article, they explained that they were in fact assembled by Michael Jackson to help compose music for the game and that their music could still be heard in the final release. But additionally, with the revelation of the Sonic the Hedgehog 3 1993-11-03 prototype in 2019, it appears that the music that Michael Jackson's team produced was actually used to replace existing tracks composed by Sega's internal sound team, which would be first heard in Sonic & Knuckles Collection. This further points in the direction of Michael Jackson choosing not to be credited, rather than Sega pulling the plug themselves (who always had the option to choose their older, in-house compositions).

Sonic the Hedgehog 3 credits

Michael Jackson's Team

The following people are listed as 'Music Composers' in the ending credits scroll, with Buxer, Grigsby, and Jones all confirming in this 2016 Huffington Post article that they worked with Michael Jackson on the soundtrack to Sonic the Hedgehog 3.

  • Brad Buxer
  • Bobby Brooks
  • Darryl Ross
  • Geoff Grace
  • Doug Grigsby III
  • C. Cirocco Jones ("Scirocco")

SEGA Sound Team

The following people are listed under 'SEGA Sound Team' in the ending credits scroll. For more details, see #Background on SEGA Sound Team and Cube Corp.

Sound Special Thanks

The following people are listed under 'Sound Special Thanks' in the ending credits scroll.

  • Mayumi Nina Sakazaki (as "MRM") ― She was Michael Jackson's coordinator, although her role in Sonic 3 is unclear.
  • Cube Corp. ― Nagao confirmed that former Cube members Miyoko Takaoka and Masanori Hikichi contributed to the music.[4] Furthermore, Cube's old list of works not just included Sonic 3, but also confirms that they were responsible for composing eight of the game's tracks.[5]
  • Opus Corp. ― This credit was placed as Nagao was preparing the join the company during the development.
  • Masanori Nakayama (Studio Who)
  • Howard Drossin ― He would go on to contribute a few tracks for Sonic & Knuckles.

Music Soundtrack

This is a work in progress list to identify the team & composer(s) behind each piece of music in the Sonic 3 & Knuckles game series.
Sonic Retro
Discussion Thread
.

Zones


Angel Island Zone ID Version(s) Team Credit(s)
Angelisland.png
01
ALL
Sega
???
02
ALL
Sega
???
The compositions for Act 1 and Act 2 made it into an arrangement for Super Smash Bros. Brawl. Because Brawl's "Sound Test" only credits Senoue, he is occasionally listed as the original composer for "Angel Island Zone", something Senoue has debunked. This arrangement was also included in the True Blue: The Best of Sonic the Hedgehog compilation CD, where the composition has been attributed to "Sega".
The Act 1 variant has made its way into Sonic the Hedgehog Pocket Adventure (for Neo South Island Zone Act 2), Sonic Generations and Sonic Mania Plus, while the Act 2 variant was used for Secret Plant Zone Act 1 in Sonic Pocket Adventure. However, in all instances, nobody was directly credited for the composition.
It was speculated that Tomonori Sawada composed music for this Zone, but he confirmed only composing the Sonic 3 Title Screen theme and its assorted jingles.


Hydrocity Zone ID Version(s) Team Credit(s)
HydrocityAct1.png
03
ALL
Sega
???
04
ALL
Opus
Masayuki Nagao (Arrangement)[6]
It was originally believed to be composed by Michael Jackson's team due to Cirocco Jones' website Music Powers having a section for "Levels 2 & 3" of a Sonic the Hedgehog game with a demo called "The Water". It has been assumed that "Level 2" refers to "Hydrocity Zone". However, this is likely not by Michael Jackson's team. The Act 2 arrangement is significantly more different from the Act 1 arrangement and there are no vocal samples incorporated in either, unlike the other MJ compositions.
Both Acts were arranged for Sonic the Hedgehog Pocket Adventure, with Act 1's theme used for Aquatic Relix Zone Act 2, and Act 2's theme used for Secret Plant Zone Act 2. The arrangement for Act 1 is unlockable in Sonic Generations. Both Acts were rearranged by Tee Lopes for Sonic Mania and included in the game's soundtrack. None of this would have happened if these pieces were not composed in-house.


Marble Garden Zone ID Version(s) Team Credit(s)
Marblegarden.png
05
ALL
Cube
Miyoko Takaoka (Composer)[7]
06
ALL
Cube
Miyoko Takaoka (Composer)
In 2014, Miyoko Takaoka stated that she had composed the music for "Marble Garden Zone" and an ambiguous "bonus stage" during a correspondence on Twitter. However, when sent links to the bonus stage compositions from Sonic 3, she did not recognize any of them and suspected that her composition was replaced for the final release. She has been credited during an official Sonic Live stream video event in August 2020 for background music being played.
The arrangement for Act 1 is unlockable in Sonic Generations, suggesting there's no rights issue for these compositions, and unlikely to be from Michael Jackson's team.


Carnival Night Zone ID Version(s) Team Credit(s)
Carnivalnight.png
07
S3 Proto, PC, Origins
Sega
???
S3
M.J.
???
08
S3 Proto, PC, Origins
Opus
Masayuki Nagao (Arragement)
S3
M.J.
???
Both Acts of the S3 version contain music inspiration from "Jam" by Michael Jackson. Most notably in the use of a horn-based "downwards fall" (played directly before Heavy D's rap in the Jackson song). Identical notes between the two songs are highlighted in red:
Michael Jackson Jam and Carnival Night Zone comparison.png
The final note in the sequence is accompanied by a distorted audio sample taken directly from the song "Jam", played on the YM2612's DAC channel. This sample is located in the Sonic 3 ROM. The poor fidelity of the sample playback on the Sega Mega Drive system could be supporting evidence of Brad Buxer's comment in the Black & White interview that Michael Jackson went uncredited as he was unsatisfied with the sound quality.
The Zone's music also contains rhythms inspired from "Entry of the Gladiators" by Julius Fučík. This piece is in the public domain.
Bars from 1995's Sonic Drift 2's Balloon Panic Course can be heard using portions of the longer 1993-11-03 prototype version of Act 2's music. Sonic Drift 2 credits Masayuki Nagao & Saori Kobayashi for sound.


Flying Battery Zone ID Version(s) Team Credit(s)
FlyingBatteryAct1.png
09
ALL
Sega
???
0A
ALL
Sega
???
The arrangement for Act 1 is unlockable in Sonic Generations. Both Acts were rearranged by Tee Lopes for Sonic Mania and were included on the game's soundtrack, indicating Sega has full ownership of these compositions and that they were composed in-house. The tune is featured as track 3 of the 1994 soundtrack Sonic & Knuckles • Sonic The Hedgehog 3 arranged by Akinori Minami.
Act 2's theme was arranged for the Knuckles boss fight in Sonic the Hedgehog Pocket Adventure.


IceCap Zone ID Version(s) Team Credit(s)
Icecap.png
0B
S3 Proto, PC, Origins
Sega
???
S3
M.J.
Brad Buxer (Composer)
0C
S3 Proto, PC, Origins
Sega
???
S3
M.J.
Brad Buxer (Composer)
The S3 version was based on a song called "Hard Times", an unreleased 1982 piece by new-wave band The Jetzons[8]. Brad Buxer was the keyboardist for the band & was credited in Sonic 3. "Hard Times" was unheard by the general public until 2008, when it appeared as part of The Complete Jetzons compilation[9]. Broadcast Music, Inc. (BMI), an authority on music credentials, also attributes Bruce Connole as songwriter/composer for "Hard Times". Connole was vocalist for the 1982 composition.
While unlikely that Michael Jackson had direct involvement in this tune, a good portion of "Smooth Criminal" shares chord structures similar to Act 1. This is especially noticeable in the version that plays in the Moonwalker movie, which isn't found on the Bad album. Roughly 6 minutes into the song, following the bass solo after the quiet orchestral section (as Jackson and the gangsters perform the Anti Gravity Lean), the bass line & string section clearly changes to a piece of music very similar to IceCap Zone. After the main bass line returns, a keyboard continues to play the IceCap chord sequence until the end of the song.
Jackson's "Who Is It" is also very similar to the Zone. The keyboard section under the chorus, when sped up, has an almost identical chord structure and texture to that of the Sonic 3 level.
Regarding IceCap's prototype music, Tomonori Sawada is speculated to have composed the prototype's music due to similarities in Crystal Egg Zone's music from the 8-bit versions of Sonic 2 (
YouTube
video
). No official source has confirmed it to be the case at this time.
Compositions for IceCap Zone have never been officially released by Sega in any official capacity.


Launch Base Zone ID Version(s) Team Credit(s)
Launchbase.png
0D
S3 Proto, PC, Origins
Sega
???
S3
M.J.
???
0E
S3 Proto, PC, Origins
Sega
???
S3
M.J.
???
The compositions for Launch Base Zone have never been officially released by Sega in any official capacity.


Mushroom Hill Zone ID Version(s) Team Credit(s)
MushroomHillAct1.png
0F
ALL
Sega
???
10
ALL
Sega
???
Also known by its prototype name "Mushroom Valley Zone", this tune is featured as track 2 of the 1994 soundtrack Sonic & Knuckles • Sonic The Hedgehog 3 arranged by Akinori Minami.
An arrangement of Act 1's theme was used for Aquatic Relix Zone Act 1 in Sonic the Hedgehog Pocket Adventure.
Three arrangements of "Mushroom Hill Zone" were made for the Nintendo 3DS version of Sonic Generations and are included in the game's soundtrack. The Act 1 composition is an unlockable piece in the console version of Generations.


Sandopolis Zone ID Version(s) Team Credit(s)
Sandopolis.png
11
ALL
Sega
???
12
ALL
Sega
???
The tune is featured as track 5 of the 1994 soundtrack Sonic & Knuckles • Sonic The Hedgehog 3 arranged by Akinori Minami. Though Howard Drossin included a piece of the same name in the album Virtual Sonic, the composition is completely different from the one used in-game. An arrangement of this piece by Tee Lopes and Jun Senoue - dubbed "Boo's House" - was included in Team Sonic Racing. This arrangement is on the
YouTube
official Sonic YouTube Channel
and the game's soundtrack. In the latter, the original game music composition is broadly attributed to "Sega".


Lava Reef Zone ID Version(s) Team Credit(s)
Lavareef.png
13
ALL
Sega
???
14
ALL
Opus
Masayuki Nagao (Arrangement)
Act 2's music is also used in Hidden Palace Zone. The composition was rearranged by Tee Lopes for Sonic Mania and is included on the game's soundtrack, where its original composition is broadly attributed to "Sega". Act 1's music is featured as track 6 of the 1994 soundtrack Sonic & Knuckles • Sonic The Hedgehog 3 arranged by Akinori Minami.

Sky Sanctuary Zone ID Version(s) Team Credit(s)
Skysanctuary.png
15
ALL
Sega
???
This piece is also used as the ending cutscene music for S&K and S3&K before the staff roll. This track has been used extensively in later releases: it has been rearranged for Sonic the Hedgehog Pocket Adventure (for Chaotic Space Zone), Mario & Sonic at the Olympic Winter Games (for Dream Gliding), Sonic Generations (for Sky Sanctuary), and Sonic & All-Stars Racing Transformed (for Sanctuary Falls). In all instances, the original game composition is broadly attributed to "Sega". The tune is featured as track 8 of the 1994 soundtrack Sonic & Knuckles • Sonic The Hedgehog 3 arranged by Akinori Minami.
It was confirmed in a SoundCloud 2015 private message to Masaru Setsumara that he did not compose the music to this Zone. As well, it was speculated that Tomonori Sawada composed music for this Zone, but he confirm only composing the Sonic 3 Title Screen theme and its assorted jingles.


Death Egg Zone ID Version(s) Team Credit(s)
DeathEggAct1.png
16
ALL
Sega
???
17
ALL
Sega
???
The tune is featured as track 9 of the 1994 soundtrack Sonic & Knuckles • Sonic The Hedgehog 3 arranged by Akinori Minami. It was also arranged for Aerobase Zone in Sonic the Hedgehog Pocket Adventure, and as a bonus song in Sonic Generations.

Bosses


Sub-Boss Theme ID Version(s) Team Credit(s)
Aizsubboss.png
18
S3 Proto, S&K, PC, Origins
Sega
???
2E
S3
M.J.
Brad Buxer (Composer)
Sonic 3 version built upon Knuckles' Theme (Sonic 3 version). Likely composed by Brad Buxer. Features similar chord progression used in Is It Scary from the Blood on the Dancefloor album. Geoff Grace is credited as arranger. Tune ID #18 is featured as the first of two parts on track 4 (The Boss) of the 1994 soundtrack Sonic & Knuckles • Sonic The Hedgehog 3 arranged by Akinori Minami. Voice samples used in Tune ID #2E (such as "Come On!") can be heard in track 7 (Robotnik's Revenge) of the 1996 album Virtual Sonic, featuring music by Howard Drossin.
Was arranged for Gigantic Angel Zone's boss as well as the second half of the cutscene that follows the Knuckles boss fight in Sonic the Hedgehog Pocket Adventure.
A glitch in vanilla Sonic 3 causes the S&K version of the theme to play. This programming oversight, where the game would still load up the music at ID 18 instead of 2E, suggests Buxer's composition may have been a late addition to Sonic 3. The prototype seems to confirm this theory since, at that point in time, the game always uses the S&K version, as the Sonic 3 version does not exist within the ROM.

Boss Theme ID Version(s) Team Credit(s)
Aizboss.png
19
ALL
Opus
Masayuki Nagao (Arrangement)
The tune is featured as the second of two parts on track 4 (The Boss) of the 1994 soundtrack Sonic & Knuckles • Sonic The Hedgehog 3 arranged by Akinori Minami. It was also arranged as the boss theme for Sonic the Hedgehog Pocket Adventure.
Masayuki Nagao is associated with this tune via sound credits in 1995's Sonic Drift 2's Final GP theme. This game credits Masayuki Nagao & Saori Kobayashi for sound.

The Doomsday Zone ID Version(s) Team Credit(s)
DoomsdayLevel.PNG
1A
ALL
Sega
???
The tune is featured as the second of two parts on track 10 (Boss The Boss) of the 1994 soundtrack Sonic & Knuckles • Sonic The Hedgehog 3 arranged by Akinori Minami. Was also used for the Mecha Sonic boss fight in Sonic the Hedgehog Pocket Adventure, and in the Sonic Generations
YouTube
E3 2011 demo Big Arm boss battle
for the Nintendo 3DS as a placeholder.

Final Boss Theme (Big Arm) ID Version(s) Team Credit(s)
LBZBoss3Tails.png
30
ALL
Sega
???
This piece has been rearranged by Cash Cash for the Nintendo 3DS version of Sonic Generations and by Tee Lopes for "Metal Mayhem", the final episode of Sonic Mania Adventures. On the Blue Blur soundtrack for Generations, the original music composition is broadly attributed to "Sega". The tune is also featured as the first of two parts on track 10 (Boss The Boss) of the 1994 soundtrack Sonic & Knuckles • Sonic The Hedgehog 3 arranged by Akinori Minami.
The track was also used for Last Utopia Zone in Sonic the Hedgehog Pocket Adventure.
The fact that the track is placed high on the list, away from the other boss themes, suggests it may have been a late addition to Sonic 3. Since the track is also present in the October 1993 prototype, it may have been added once it was decided to split the game into two.

Bonus stages

Bonus Stage (Rolling Jump) ID Version(s) Team Credit(s)
Magspheres.png
1B
ALL
Sega
???
Also known as the "Glowing Spheres Bonus Stage", it is the first of three parts of track 7 (Rings And Diamonds Land) on the 1994 soundtrack Sonic & Knuckles • Sonic The Hedgehog 3 arranged by Akinori Minami. Although VGMdb lists the first section of that track as being composed by Jun Senoue, no evidence on the disc's physical documentation lists composers to associate with any of its tracks.

Special Stage (Blue Spheres) ID Version(s) Team Credit(s)
S3k specialstage.png
1C
ALL
Sega
Yoshiaki Kashima (Composer)[10]
Was recycled from the unreleased SegaSonic Bros. for the Sega System C2 in 1992 from Stage 40 to 49 gameplay music. The music is also listed as track 15 on the compilation CD Sonic the Hedgehog 10th Anniversary and was rearranged by Tee Lopes for Sonic Mania. The tune is also featured as the third of three parts on track 7 (Rings And Diamonds Land) of the 1994 soundtrack Sonic & Knuckles • Sonic The Hedgehog 3 arranged by Akinori Minami.

Bonus Stage (Slot Machine) ID Version(s) Team Credit(s)
Sonic&Knuckles MD BonusSlotMachine.png
1D
ALL
Sega
Jun Senoue (Composer & Arrangement)
The tune is featured as the second of three parts on track 7 (Rings And Diamonds Land) of the 1994 soundtrack Sonic & Knuckles • Sonic The Hedgehog 3 arranged by Akinori Minami.
Was also arranged for Cosmic Casino Zone Act 2 in Sonic the Hedgehog Pocket Adventure.
One of the unused music found in the Mega Drive 825 prototype of Sonic 3D (
YouTube
as demonstrated by Sonic 3D's game designer and implementer Jon Burton
) includes this tune as a placeholder for Knuckles' Special Stage, during the time each Special Stage was developed to have their own tunes. He credits the tune to Jun Senoue.

Bonus Stage (Gumball Machine) ID Version(s) Team Credit(s)
Bubblegum.png
1E
ALL
Sega
Jun Senoue (Composer)[11]
Confirmed through an interview with the composer.
Was also arranged for Cosmic Casino Zone Act 1 in Sonic the Hedgehog Pocket Adventure.

Competition mode

Azure Lake ID Version(s) Team Credit(s)
Azure Lake Zone.png
20
ALL
Sega
???
Was arranged for Sky Chase Zone in Sonic the Hedgehog Pocket Adventure.

Balloon Park ID Version(s) Team Credit(s)
Balloonpark.png
21
ALL
Sega
Jun Senoue (Composer)[12]
Was arranged for two Challenge Act themes in Sonic Generations (as a standalone arrangement, and another combined with the Quick Race theme from Sonic Heroes). Composition credit shared with Sega Sound Team on the Sonic Generations Original Soundtrack: Blue Blur music CD (Disc 2, Track 24).

Desert Palace ID Version(s) Team Credit(s)
Desertpalace.png
22
ALL
Sega
???
Was arranged for Gigantic Angel Zone Act 1 in Sonic the Hedgehog Pocket Adventure.

Chrome Gadget ID Version(s) Team Credit(s)
Chromegadget.png
23
ALL
Sega
???
Was arranged for Gigantic Angel Zone Act 2 in Sonic the Hedgehog Pocket Adventure.

Endless Mine ID Version(s) Team Credit(s)
Endlessmine.png
24
ALL
Sega
???
The melody bears similarities to "Escape from the City" from Sonic Adventure 2, composed by Jun Senoue. However, Senoue himself has stated that said track is not based on Endless Mine Zone's music[13], nor does he mention working on this piece. Regardless, Cash Cash incorporated the melody for this piece in their Act 1 arrangement of "Escape from the City" for Sonic Generations, during which the player controls Classic Sonic. The original music composition for this arrangement is solely attributed to Senoue on the Blue Blur soundtrack CD.

Themes/Jingles

Knuckles' Theme ID Version(s) Team Credit(s)
Sonic3 MD AIZ1 Knuckles1.png
1F
S3 Proto, PC
Sega
???
S3
M.J.
Brad Buxer (Composer)
S&K, PC, Origins
Sega
Howard Drossin (Composer), Masaru Setsumaru (Programming)
Music used in the prototype occurs during cutscenes with Knuckles at the end of AIZ Act 2 & HZ Act 2 (but not at start of AIZ Act 1). The same music is used in the Sonic & Knuckles Collection PC version. The Sonic 3 version of the 4-bar swinging hip-hop beat was heavily inspired by the drumbeat of "Blood on the Dance Floor" by Michael Jackson (drum programming credited to Brad Buxer). Howard Drossin's tune is featured as track 12 of the 1994 soundtrack Sonic & Knuckles • Sonic The Hedgehog 3 arranged by Akinori Minami, and track 2 (Knucklemania) of the 1996 album Virtual Sonic.
Strangely, the Sonic 3 final version of the theme was arranged for the first half of the cutscene that follows the Knuckles boss fight in Sonic the Hedgehog Pocket Adventure.
The Sonic 3 prototype/PC version is the only song from those versions to not be included in Sonic Origins, not even in the Museum.

Title Screen ID Version(s) Team Credit(s)
Sonic3 title.png
25
S3C, S3, PC, Origins
Sega / Opus
Tomonori Sawada (Composer)[14], Masayuki Nagao (Arrangement)
S&K, PC
Sega
Howard Drossin (Composer)[15], Masaru Setsumaru (Programming)
Title screen music changes in the PC version based on the game combination the player chooses to play. Howard Drossin's tune is featured as track 1 of the 1994 soundtrack Sonic & Knuckles • Sonic The Hedgehog 3 arranged by Akinori Minami, and track 6 of the 1996 album Virtual Sonic.
Sonic 3's title theme was arranged for the title theme of Sonic the Hedgehog Pocket Adventure, as well as that game's Special Stage and credits themes.
Masayuki Nagao is associated with this tune via sound credits in Sonic Drift 2's invincibility theme, it being derivative from the Sonic 3 Title Screen theme.

Staff Roll ID Version(s) Team Credit(s)
Sonic3 MD CreditsStart.png
26
S3 Proto, PC, Origins
Sega
???
S3
M.J.
Brad Buxer (Composer)
S3C Proto
Various
Various
S&K, PC, Origins
Sega
Various
Staff roll used in the PC version accessible through Sound Test of the prototype.
The Sonic 3 version was the basis of a Buxer-Jackson collaboration "Stranger In Moscow", as confirmed in the Black & White magazine interview, and episode 100 of TheMJCast audio interview. Brad Buxer used the same chords. The synth/strings section, as heard in the intro before the lyrics start, is identical to the sequence that plays during the first section of the staff roll. Particularly unusual about this find is that Stranger In Moscow was not released until a full two years after Sonic 3. It has been suggested that the staff roll may have been a prototype to this song.
The Sonic 3C 0517 prototype changed the staff roll music to a medley that incorporate themes from Zones of the S3 & S&K games. However, the final mix is a medley of S&K Zones only.
The Sonic Origins version uses the prototype/PC staff roll theme for the ending sequence if all the Super Emeralds have been collected, and the S&K medley for the credits.

Game Over ID Version(s) Team Credit(s)
Sonic3 MD GameOver.png
27
ALL
Sega
Jun Senoue (Composer & Arrangement)
Is credited in the Mega Drive version of Sonic 3D: Flickies' Island for the same cue[16]. Also used for the "Time Over" cue if spending 10 minutes in an Act.
Was later used in Sonic the Hedgehog Pocket Adventure, Sonic the Hedgehog 4, Sonic Generations and Sonic Mania.

2-Player Results (Competition) ID Version(s) Team Credit(s)
S3 2player.png
28
ALL
Sega
Jun Senoue (Composer & Arrangement)
Is credited in the Mega Drive version of Sonic 3D: Flickies' Island as the Continue Screen music and the Congratulations Screen music when unlocking the Level Select via a critical error[16]. This music was also used as the Continue Screen music, and the No Way? No Way! Screen music when locking the S&K cart onto another Mega Drive cart, and used for the Continue screen in Sonic the Hedgehog Pocket Adventure.

Act Clear ID Version(s) Team Credit(s)
SonicCanMoveDuringScoreTally.png
29
ALL
Sega
Jun Senoue (Composer & Arrangement)
Is credited in the Mega Drive version of Sonic 3D: Flickies' Island for the same cue.[16]

Extra Life ID Version(s) Team Credit(s)
Sonic3 MD ExtraLife.png
2A
S3 Proto, S3, PC, Origins
Sega / Opus
Tomonori Sawada (Composer), Masayuki Nagao (Arrangement)
S&K, PC, Origins
Sega
Howard Drossin (Composer), Masaru Setsumaru (Programming & Arrangement)
S3 version based off the S3 title screen. Likely one of the jingles Sawada referred to composing. This piece was used in a Progressive Insurance commercial in 2012. S&K version uses the tune of the S&K title screen. This tune is likely associated with Drossin. The PC version switches depending on the game combination the player chooses to play.
The S3 version was later used as the extra life jingle in Sonic the Hedgehog 4 and Sonic Mania, while the S&K version was later used in Sonic the Hedgehog Pocket Adventure and the Mega Drive version of Sonic 3D: Flickies' Island.
Masayuki Nagao is associated with this tune via sound credits in Sonic Drift 2's invincibility theme, it being derivative from the Sonic 3 Title Screen theme.
Sonic Origins switches between both versions depending on the mode. The S3 version is used when getting Coins in Anniversary Mode, Mirror Mode and Story Mode, while the S&K version is used for extra lives in Classic Mode.

Chaos Emerald ID Version(s) Team Credit(s)
Sonic3 MD ChaosEmerald.png
2B
ALL
Sega
Yukifumi Makino (Composer & Arrangement)
Used as early as Sonic the Hedgehog for the Mega Drive.

Invincibility Theme ID Version(s) Team Credit(s)
S3Invincibility.PNG
2C
S3 Proto, S3, PC
Sega / Opus
Tomonori Sawada (Composer), Masayuki Nagao (Arrangement)
S&K, PC, Origins
Sega
Howard Drossin (Composer), Masaru Setsumaru (Programming)
S3 version based off the S3 title screen. Likely one of the jingles Sawada referred to composing. Was also used during a Progressive Insurance commercial in 2012.
S&K version uses the tune of the S&K title screen. This tune is likely associated with Drossin. Was also used in Sonic the Hedgehog Pocket Adventure.
Also used as the theme to the character's Super/Hyper transformation. The PC version switches depending on the game combination the player chooses to play.
Also remixed in 1995's Sonic Drift 2 as the
YouTube
Invincibility
theme. This game credits Masayuki Nagao & Saori Kobayashi for sound.

Competition Screen ID Version(s) Team Credit(s)
S3competitionscreen.png
2D
S3 Proto, PC, Origins
Sega
???
S3
M.J.
???
Prototype didn't use music (was only accessible in the Sound Test), but is used for the Competition Menu in Sonic & Knuckles Collection and Sonic Origins. Mega Drive version is the only MJ team-composed track to use regular drums rather than samples exclusive to it.
It's speculated that parts of the Michael Jackson song
YouTube
You Rock My World
was used as the basis for this tune.

Unused Theme ID Version(s) Team Credit(s)
Notavailable.svg
2E
S3 Proto, PC, Origins
Sega
???
Replaced with the sub-boss music in the Mega Drive release.
Sonic Origins later uses the theme for the difficulty rating screen in New Blue Spheres.

Data Select ID Version(s) Team Credit(s)
Sonic3 MD DataSelect.png
2F
ALL
Sega
Masaru Setsumaru (Programming & Arrangement)
Appears as a remixed tune in 1997's Sonic Jam during the Gallery visit. The credits of the compilation game's music shows Masaru Setsumaru & Kenichi Tokoi as composers. Tokoi joined Sega in 1996, and likely might not be his composition. This leaves credit to Setsumaru for this tune. However, He confirmed he was not the composer, and didn't know who was.
This piece has also been remixed by Naofumi Hataya for Sonic Gems Collection as "Sonic3 MegaD Mix" and was later included in the 2008 CD True Blue: The History of Sonic the Hedgehog. It was also rearranged for the Gallery Room in Sonic Generations and is included in the game's Blue Blur soundtrack. In all instances, the original game composition is broadly attributed to "Sega".
Was also arranged for the menu theme in Sonic the Hedgehog Pocket Adventure.

Drowning Countdown ID Version(s) Team Credit(s)
Sonic3 MD DrowningCountdown.png
31
ALL
Sega
Yukifumi Makino (Composer & Arrangement)
Used as early as Sonic the Hedgehog for the Mega Drive.

All Clear ID Version(s) Team Credit(s)
Sonic3 MD Ending Sonic.png
32
S3, PC
Sega / Opus
Tomonori Sawada (Composer), Masayuki Nagao (Arrangement)
S&K, Origins
Sega
Howard Drossin (Composer), Masaru Setsumaru (Programming)
The S3 version was later used for the results tally after clearing Chaotic Space Zone in Sonic the Hedgehog Pocket Adventure.
The S&K version is unused in most versions. Was later used in Sonic Origins for the results tally after clearing Launch Base Zone Act 2.

Audio samples list

Download.svg Download Sonic 3 Samples (WAV Format)
File: S3sampswav.rar (125 kB) (info)
The DAC audio samples located within the Sonic the Hedgehog 3 ROM (
Sonic Retro
originally extracted by Stealth
) are listed here as part of an ongoing project to locate where they came from.
Sonic Retro
Discussion Thread
.


DAC Audio Samples List ID Type Source Description / Usage
81 Drum Snare
82 Drum Same as 83, 84, 85 Tom
83 Drum Same as 82, 84, 85 Tom
84 Drum Same as 82, 83, 85 Tom
85 Drum Same as 82, 83, 84 Tom
86 Drum Kick
87 Drum Snare
88 Drum Kick + Cymbal
89 Drum HiHat
8A SFX Same as 8B Hit (Metal)
8B SFX Same as 8A Hit (Metal)
8C SFX Pop, Click
8D Drum Same as 8E
8E Drum Same as 8D
8F Clap
90 Drum Same as 91, 92, 93 E.Tom
91 Drum Same as 90, 92, 93 E.Tom
92 Drum Same as 90, 91, 93 E.Tom
93 Drum Same as 90, 91, 92 E.Tom
94 Drum Same as 95, 96, 97 E.Snare
95 Drum Same as 94, 96, 97 E.Snare
96 Drum Same as 94, 95, 97 E.Snare
97 Drum Same as 94, 95, 96 E.Snare
98 Drum Same as 99, 9A Timpani
99 Drum Same as 98, 9A Timpani
9A Drum Same as 98, 99 Timpani
9B Drum Snare
9C SFX Shaker
9D SFX Kick (Distorted)
9E SFX Hit
9F Sample (Original) Michael Jackson: "Jam" "Jam!" long (Played at 13.5kHz) / Carnival Night Zone
A0 Sample (Original) Michael Jackson: "Jam" "Jam!" short (Played at 13.5kHz) / Carnival Night Zone
A1 Sample (Original) Michael Jackson: "In The Closet" ([1]) Glass Break 1 / Carnival Night Zone
A2 Sample (Original) Michael Jackson: "In The Closet" ([2]) Glass Break 2 / Carnival Night Zone, Launch Base Zone
A3 SFX Hit
A4 Drum Kick (Muted)
A5 Sample (Sample Pack) Norman Cook: "Skip To My Loops" (Track 64) "Come On!" / Sub-Boss Theme (S3)
A6 Drum E.Snare
A7 Drum Kick (Vintage)
A8 Drum Kick (Processed)
A9 Sample (Sample Pack) Norman Cook: "Skip To My Loops" (Track 64) "Woo!", "HUH" / Sub-Boss Theme (S3)
AA Sample (Sample Pack) Run-DMC: "Peter Piper" (1:56) "Go!" / Launch Base Zone
AB Sample (Edited Sample Pack) Same as AA sample with snare drum added "Go!" + Snare / Launch Base Zone
AC Drum Kick (Processed)
AD Percussion Same as AE Hit (Wooden)
AE Percussion Same as AD Hit (Wooden)
AF Percussion Same as B0 Hit (Metal)
B0 Percussion Same as AF Hit (Metal)
B1 SFX Sci-Fi Sound
B2 Clap Same as B3 / Knuckles' Theme (S3)
B3 Clap Same as B2 / Knuckles' Theme (S3)
B4 Sample Same as C1, C2, C3, C4 Chord Stab
B5 Sample Chord Stab
B6 Sample (Original) James Brown: "Say It Loud, I'm Black & I'm Proud" ([3]) "Yeah", "Hey" + Kick / Knuckles' Theme (S3), Sub-Boss Theme (S3)
B7 Drum Kick
B8 Sample Same as B9 Chord Stab
B9 Sample Same as B8 Chord Stab
BA SFX Cymbal (Reversed)
BB SFX Record Scratch
BC Sample Chord Stab
BD Drum Kick
BE Sample (Edited Sample Pack) Same as A9 plus glass break added "Woo!" + Glass Break / Sub-Boss Theme (S3)
BF SFX Click
C0 Sample (Original [?]) Breath
C1 Sample Same as B4, C2, C3, C4 Chord Stab
C2 Sample Same as B4, C1, C3, C4 Chord Stab
C3 Sample Same as B4, C1, C2, C4 Chord Stab
C4 Sample Same as B4, C1, C2, C3 Chord Stab
XX Sample Similar to BC Chord Stab


Background on Michael Jackson's Team

Roger Hector

Sonic 3 (also called Sonic & Knuckles) was a lot of fun, but it was also very difficult. Michael Jackson was originally brought in to compose all the music for the game, but at the very end, his work was dropped after his scandals became public. This caused a lot of problems and required a lot of reworking. But the game turned out great in the end.

— Roger Hector, General Manager of the Sega Technical Institute[17]

In an interview in August 2005, Roger Hector, the "executive coordinator" of both Sonic 3 and Sonic & Knuckles, confirmed that Michael Jackson composed all the music for the game, but was dropped due to the 1993 scandal[17]. This was backed up by a separate interview two years later, claiming that the Jackson soundtrack was never heard by the general publicMedia:Makingofs3kpg4.jpg[18].

While Hector was not directly involved in Sonic 3's development, his role was to manage all projects at STI, and was usually involved with high level discussions (Jackson's signing and dismissal being two of them).

The music fitted perfectly for the game, and they had a distinctive 'Michael Jackson' sound. We had it all ready and integrated into the game when the first news stories came out accusing him [of] child molestation, and Sega had to back away from the collaboration...It was too bad nobody outside ever heard the Michael Jackson music.

— Roger Hector, Executive Coordinator, Sonic 3 & KnucklesMedia:Makingofs3kpg4.jpg[18]

This was the first confirmation we had about Michael Jackson's involvement in the game.

Brad Buxer

Brad Buxer, credited in Sonic 3, was a long-time contributor to Michael Jackson. He is the co-writer of the 1996 hit, Stranger in Moscow, and was also involved with the production of Jam and Who Is It, all of which are thought to share similarities with the Sonic 3 soundtrack.

Black & White Magazine (2009) Interview

Buxer shed some light on Michael Jackson's involvement in a December 2009 interview with Black & White Magazine. In this interview, Buxer confirms that the final release of Sonic 3 does contain at least one piece of work by Michael Jackson:

B&W: Can you clarify the rumor that Michael had in 1993 composed the music for Sonic 3 video game, for which you [have] been credited?

Buxer: I've never played the game so I do not know what tracks on which Michael and I have worked the developers have kept, but we did compose music for the game. Michael called me at the time for help on this project, and that's what I did.

And if he is not credited for composing the music, it's because he was not happy with the [resulting] sound coming out of the console. At the time, game consoles did not allow an optimal sound reproduction, and Michael found it frustrating. He did not want to be associated with a product that devalued his music...

B&W: One of the surprising things in this soundtrack is that you can hear the chords from Stranger in Moscow, which is supposed to have been composed later...

Buxer: Yes, Michael and I had composed those chords for the game, and it has been used as [the] base for Stranger in Moscow. [...]

— An excerpt from the Black & White Magazine interview with Brad Buxer[19]

According to this statement, Jackson did not wish to be credited by name in the game because he was unhappy with the quality of sound the Sega Mega Drive's Yamaha YM-2612 sound chip produced. Buxer's statement also confirms that the similarities between Jackson's "Stranger in Moscow" and Sonic 3's ending credits song were not a coincidence and that the credits theme indeed uses chords originally composed by him and Buxer.

However, these statements directly contradict what Roger Hector has said.

The MJCast (2019) Interview

In May 2019, Buxer was featured giving an interview on the The MJCast where he talked about the origin of Stranger in Moscow and his work on Sonic 3:

Buxer describes how he was assigned by Michael Jackson to start composing the music for the game, and it was Buxer who "delegated other people to help...like Doug Grigsby and Darryl Ross and other people."

Brad Buxer frames himself in the interview as being the lead on the Sonic 3 project, with Michael Jackson having less personal involvement.

Buxer states that in the end, they had about 41 music cues ready for the game.

This suggests that it is possible that every Act and Zone had a track composed for it, even Zones planned for Sonic & Knuckles, but we know that only a few appeared and only in Sonic the Hedgehog 3 alone. If this is true, it could provide an explanation as to why Roger Hector feels that people never heard the Michael Jackson soundtrack. Sonic & Knuckles features no tracks by Michael Jackson's team, and only a small number of the tracks made it into Sonic the Hedgehog 3, in contrast to all of the tracks Michael Jackson's team produced.

Howard Drossin

Howard Drossin and his guitar. From the MTV Special "Inside Sonic & Knuckles."

According to Roger Hector, Howard Drossin is said to have been brought in to replace Michael Jackson's musicMedia:Makingofs3kpg4.jpg[18], but also goes uncredited in Sonic 3. He is, however, the main composer behind Sonic & Knuckles (and is credited there).

Drossin, when recollecting his involvement in the soundtrack in August 2008, was adamant that Michael Jackson had nothing to do with the final product, but went on to say that he was not responsible for the bulk of the soundtrack as Roger Hector claimed, but only a handful of his tracks made it into the final product, most exclusive to Sonic & Knuckles[20].

When locked onto Sonic 3, Sonic & Knuckles creates Sonic 3 & Knuckles. When this occurs, the miniboss and Knuckles themes (and most of the jingles) from Sonic 3 are replaced with their Sonic & Knuckles counterparts, most of which were composed by Drossin. So in this context, some Sonic 3 tracks were replaced by Drossin's compositions, but the true reasoning for why remains unclear.

Cirocco Jones

A discography of another musician (or "music consultant") working on the game, Cirocco Jones (appearing as 'Scirocco' in the Sonic 3 credits), lists a "levels 2 & 3" as being composed by Michael Jackson and belonging to "Sonic The Hedgehog"[21]. While "levels 2 & 3" could be referring to Hydrocity Zone and Marble Garden Zone, respectively, it could easily be referring to prototype level ordering, or indeed the order in which the group composed music.

Correspondence between him and Sonic Retro members has revealed that he and the other composers spent "countless hours" working with Michael while trying to make sure it fit Sega's needs. He also revealed that there may be a lawsuit going on or about to go on as Sega owes them money.[22]

Other composers

In addition to Brad Buxer and Cirocco Jones, other credited composers are known to have worked alongside Michael Jackson in the early-to-mid 1990s.

Robert Green "Bobby" Brooks was working with Michael and his siblings as an audio engineer, possibly from as early as their Motown years. Darryl Ross was also an engineer working with the star, Geoff Grace a composer, and Doug Grigsby III produced some of Jackson's material during this time period. All four were involved in the creation of Michael Jackson's next album, HIStory: Past, Present and Future, Book I which was released in 1995, and none are known to have previously worked in video games (or indeed since in most cases).


Background on SEGA Sound Team and Cube Corp.

Tokuhiko Uwabo

Uwabo has stated that he was responsible for the management of the game's sound development, which involved assigning the staff at Sega and contracting other composers. He did not do any work on the sound itself.[22]

Yoshiaki Kashima

I composed a [piece of] music for [the "special stage"]. I [worked on Sonic 3, as well as the other titles]. [I'm] sorry. I can't give [you more details]. [Since it's all] confidential information.

— Yoshiaki Kashima[10]

In a 2001 interview, he revealed he composed the special stage theme, previously used in SegaSonic Bros., which also happens to have more tracks that made it into later games. He stated that he was unable to go into further detail due to the confidentiality of the information. In private messages between a Retro User and Masaru Setsumaru, it was stated that Kashima was solely responsible for programming the game's sound driver.[4]

Masaru Setsumaru

According to Facebook PMs between Setsumaru and Sonic Retro members, he was responsible for sound programming along with Masayuki Nagao. He was also responsible for sound effects and arrangement, although not music composition.[22] He has also stated that he felt it was an honor to work on the same project as Michael Jackson.[4]

Tomonori Sawada

Sawada stated in a SoundCloud PM in 2015 that he did not compose Sky Sanctuary's music, previously assumed to be his based on the SONIC THE HEDGEHOG 10th Anniversary CD crediting the five Sonic 3 & Knuckles tracks to him, Kashima, and Drossin. He stated that he composed 3's title screen music and some jingles instead. He also said that he is no longer able to tell who did each track anymore, most likely due to him no longer having the documentation.[23] He has been contacted about the prototype's music although he did not respond, possibly due to the confidentiality of such information. It is possible that he composed prototype IceCap's music, based on its similarities to Crystal Egg from the 8-bit version of Sonic the Hedgehog 2.

Masayuki Nagao

Nagao has confirmed he was involved with arrangements and programming, including Hydrocity Zone Act 2. He also "produced" more than half of the songs for the game, which likely means he programmed them. Opus Corp. is mentioned in the credits as Nagao was getting ready to join the company while working on the game.

Jun Senoue

In a 2002 interview, he mentions that the bonus stage tracks were composed by him. However, he is unable to reveal details, due to "so much secret things". When asked on Twitter about who did what for Sonic 3 & Knuckles' music, he simply stated that Sega did all of it, neither going into detail about who did what nor acknowledging the involvement of third parties. [24] In 2010, he stated in a Nintendo Power magazine that he knows "quite a lot" about Jackson's involvement, but cannot disclose it.

Miyoko Takaoka

During correspondence with Takaoka and a fan, she stated she composed the music for Marble Garden Zone and bonus stage music.[7] After being shown the bonus stage music in the game, she did not recognize any of it as hers and believes that her track may have gone unused. The same may have been the case for Marble Garden's music too, as some fans familiar with her work do not feel it sounds like her.


Current issues

In the modern age, video game companies have become increasingly wary of re-releasing games in their back catalog that they may not own the full rights to. The changes made for Sonic & Knuckles Collection would suggest the music in Sonic the Hedgehog 3 has been presenting a problem since Sonic the Hedgehog 3 and Sonic & Knuckles were brought to Windows PCs in the form of Sonic & Knuckles Collection at least in 1997.

In that edition, six tracks (Carnival Night, IceCap, Launch Base, the credits to Sonic the Hedgehog 3, Knuckles' theme in Sonic 3 and the Competition menu) had entirely different compositions, and the Mini-Boss theme is always the Sonic & Knuckles version, with the slot for the Sonic 3 version being replaced with an entirely different (and unused) song. Sega isn't thought to have been challenged on the use of Sonic 3's music, but it remains a thorny issue to this day.

Initially, it was believed to be replacements to avoid rights issues, however, as these tracks are present in the Sonic the Hedgehog 3 (prototype; 1993-11-03) people have speculated that the PC version may have been in simultaneous development as the Sega Mega Drive version. It is possible that the compositions in the PC/Prototype were what was originally planned before Michael Jackson's team was introduced, and only the development team working on the Sega Mega Drive version got the compositions produced by Michael Jackson's music team.

No subsequent Sonic game has ever revisited Carnival Night, IceCap, or Launch Base Zone. Sonic Generations and Sonic Mania avoid these levels, and likewise, the mini-boss theme has never been heard outside of Sonic 3. The lone exception is Lego Dimensions, which included Carnival Night and IceCap but sidestepped the issue by not licensing any music from the Mega Drive titles, opting instead to compose new soundalike tracks for all the Zones. Curiously, however, some of the replaced Sonic 3 jingles have turned up in newer games (such as the title screen and 1-up theme), which would suggest Sega owns the rights to those. Most of Sonic the Hedgehog Pocket Adventure's soundtrack is lifted from Sonic 3 and Sonic & Knuckles while typically avoiding the so-called Jackson tracks, but strangely uses the Knuckles theme from Sonic 3 for a cutscene.

Sonic 3 is less widely available than its Mega Drive counterparts - while included where it is expected (e.g. Sonic Jam or Sonic Mega Collection), it is often neglected in budget Mega Drive consoles made by AtGames, and is missing from the 2018 release of Sega Mega Drive Classics, despite virtually every other first-party Mega Drive game making an appearance.

Despite being offered by Christian Whitehead and Simon Thomley to develop a remastered version of Sonic 3, following the line of other mobile versions of Sonic CD, Sonic 1 and Sonic 2 developed by them, Sega did not chose to pursue to give Sonic 3 the same treatment until Sonic Origins in 2022.

There is no concrete evidence that the music holds Sonic 3 back, however, there have been similar cases where the publisher has been reluctant to re-release games that may present legal issues. Nintendo's EarthBound on the Super NES is one such example - the Virtual Console release was held back for years because much of the game's soundtrack samples popular songs from The Beatles and elsewhere.

References

  1. The Story of Sonic Team – 1997 Developer Interview
  2. wikipedia:Itchy &_Scratchy: The Movie
  3. Simpsons, The Easter Egg - Uncredited Voices
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 [
    Sonic Retro
    Sonic Retro forum thread: New info on MJ involvement?; post #764635 by Dissident93
    Sonic Retro
    Sonic Retro forum thread: New info on MJ involvement?; post #764635 by Dissident93
    ]
  5. Cube's old list of works (Wayback Machine: 2004-04-03 19:31)
  6. sega:Masayuki Nagao#Sonic the Hedgehog 3
  7. 7.0 7.1 Miyoko Kobayashi confirming credit for Marble Garden on her personal Twitter
  8. Even more Sonic 3 music details emerge
  9. Fervor Records at Center of Sonic The Hedgehog / Michael Jackson Musical Mystery
  10. 10.0 10.1 Milpo Interview by LOst (July 23, 2001)
  11. Jun Senoue interview by LOst (June 2002)
  12. SONIC GENERATIONS ORIGINAL SOUNDTRACK BLUE BLUR on VGMdb
  13. Jun Senoue answering a fan's question on Twitter
  14. Screenshot showing the messages between Tomonori Sawada and a fan
  15. Sonic the Hedgehog 3/Development/Music#Howard_Drossin
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 [
    Sonic Retro
    Sonic Retro forum thread: The "Sonic The Hedgehog 3 & Knuckles" Quest for Music Composer Research; post #951242 by ICEknight
    Sonic Retro
    Sonic Retro forum thread: The "Sonic The Hedgehog 3 & Knuckles" Quest for Music Composer Research; post #951242 by ICEknight
    ]
  17. 17.0 17.1 Roger Hector interview by hxc (August 2005)
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 File:Makingofs3kpg4.jpg
  19. Brad Buxer Interview (Black & White, November/December 2009)
  20. Howard Drossin interview by SageXPO (August 2008)
  21. Cirocco Jones' website (Wayback Machine: 2006-11-14 05:59)
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 [
    Sonic Retro
    Sonic Retro forum thread: Stuff I've gotten from the Sonic 3 music team; post #662546 by Dissident93
    Sonic Retro
    Sonic Retro forum thread: Stuff I've gotten from the Sonic 3 music team; post #662546 by Dissident93
    ]
  23. https://imgur.com/o7TQff6
  24. @crush40 on Twitter


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