From Sonic Retro
Artificial Chaos are synthetic life-forms that were developed by Professor Gerald Robotnik, presumably during Project Shadow. Appearing as enemies in Sonic Adventure 2 and Shadow the Hedgehog, the creatures are cyborg copies of the mutated chao, Chaos. They exist as free-floating orbs or large pillars of turquoise water, with a mechanical head shaped like Chaos 0's on top. The creatures occupy many areas in the Space Colony ARK, apparently having survived the GUN purge that shut down Project Shadow.
Maria states that the Artificial Chaos were "based on the god of an ancient culture", although Gerald could not have had access to Chaos itself when he created them as the beast was sealed inside the Master Emerald. Some time after being created, the experiments went out of control and started attacking anyone in sight - events recounted in Shadow's flashback stage The Doom. Later in Shadow the Hedgehog - during The ARK stage - Black Doom remarks that "they are ours now", suggesting that the Black Arms somehow took (or intend to take) control of the Artificial Chaos.
In Shadow the Hedgehog, Artificial Chaos are faced in all levels set on the space colony: The Doom, The ARK, Space Gadget, Lost Impact, and Cosmic Fall. In this game, all the Artificial Chaos are floating globules, able to attack with tentacles and fission into smaller blobs, but lacking any laser-eye-beam capacity.
For specifics on the Sonic Adventure 2 varieties, see: